A study by researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) reinforces the finding burberry ties that too little sleep or sleep patterns that are inconsistent with our body’s “internal biological clock” may lead to increased risk of diabetes and obesity. This finding has been seen in short-term lab studies and when observing human subjects via epidemiological studies. However, unlike epidemiological studies, this new study provides support by examining humans in a controlled lab environment over a prolonged period, and altering the timing of sleep, mimicking shift work or recurrent jet lag.
Researchers hosted 21 healthy participants in a completely controlled environment for nearly six weeks. The researchers controlled how many hours of sleep participants got, as well as when they slept, and other factors such as activities and diet. Participants started with getting optimal burberry outlet sleep (approximately 10 hours per night). This was followed by three weeks of 5.6 hours of sleep per 24-hour period and with sleep occurring at all times of day and night, thereby simulating the schedule of rotating shift workers. Thus, during this period, there were many days when participants were trying to sleep at unusual times within their internal circadian cycle-the body’s “internal biological clock” that regulates sleep-wake and many other processes within our bodies. The study closed with the participants having nine nights of recovery sleep at the usual time.
The researchers saw that prolonged sleep restriction with simultaneous circadian disruption decreased the participants’ resting metabolic rate. Moreover, during this period, glucose concentrations in the blood increased after meals, because of poor insulin secretion by the pancreas.
According to the researchers, a decreased resting metabolic rate could translate into a yearly weight gain of over 10 pounds if diet and activity are unchanged. Increased glucose concentration and poor insulin secretion could lead to an increased risk for diabetes.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced Wednesday that it will ask livestock producers, drug companies and veterinarians to curb the use of antibiotics to promote growth in food-producing animals — a practice that has been shown to create drug resistance in microbes.
The presence of such 'superbugs," as they're sometimes called, threatens public health because if they sicken humans, they can be impossible to treat.
The FDA's recommendations included guidelines to help the industry phase out the antibiotics for "production use" and transfer oversight of the drugs for therapeutic burberry shoes for men work to veterinarians (that is, require a prescription). The FDA also offered draft guidance to drug companies for labeling their products to require a prescription and draft regulations to allow veterinarians to authorize the use of "certain drugs" in feed.
"This new strategy will ensure farmers and veterinarians can care for animals while ensuring the medicines people need remain safe and effective," said agency commissioner Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg in a statement.
But many critics worried that the "voluntary initiative" would not be enough.
"This is a step in the right direction, but much more needs to be done," said Rep. Louise M. Slaughter, D-N.Y., a physician who has been working for Ray ban sunglasses years in Congress to prevent overuse of antibiotics and preserve their effectiveness for medical treatment, in a statement. " 'Nonbinding recommendations' are not a strong enough antidote to the problem ... additionally, the FDA's pace here has been nothing short of glacial."
The council and other environmental groups filed a lawsuit in 2011 to require the FDA to withdraw approval for non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock.
In March, a federal judge ordered the agency to begin work to withdraw approval.
While stars like our Sun are known to eject much of their mass in their final years, it has remained unclear just how the dust is blown away.
Scientists reporting in Nature describe an astronomical study of extraordinary resolution to tackle Oakley sunglasses the mystery.
They found dust grains of nearly a millionth of a metre across, big enough to be pushed out by dying stars' light.
The team of astronomers from Australian and European universities took a look at three so-called red giant stars - stars that were once like our Sun is now, but that have exhausted their supply of hydrogen and grown to gargantuan proportions.
In a process that is an extreme case of the kind of solar wind that our own Sun experiences, such stars blow much of their mass away in the form of gas and grains of mineral material on their way to becoming white dwarfs.
Lead author of the study Barnaby Norris, of the University of Sydney, told BBC News that the stars were "the galaxy's great recyclers" - the material that they spit out "goes on to make the next generation of stars and planets".
What has confused astronomers until now is just how that material is expelled; burberry t-shirts for women computer models of the process suggest that particles coming from the stars should be so small that they would simply absorb the light around them and undergo significant heating.
VLT telescopes The measurements were made with the European Southern Observatory's VLT
To get a look at the dust surrounding the three red giants, Mr Norris and his colleagues used the Very Large Telescope in Chile, applying a technique called polarimetric interferometry.
The light from the three stars, like that from our Sun, is unpolarised - the light waves undulate in random directions.
But light that strikes the dust surrounding them is preferentially bounced toward us undulating along a particular direction - just as sunlight reflected off of a body of water is polarised along a direction parallel to the water's surface. Louis Vuitton sunglasses, cheap louis vuitton eyeglasses outlet.
The team refined a method of blocking some of the VLT's light and combining images of the stars in different polarisations. As a result, they could tell apart distant objects separated by just 15 billionths of a degree in the sky.
"This is equivalent to standing in Sydney and looking at a coffee cup sitting on a desk in Melbourne, and being able to measure its size," Mr Norris explained.
The team saw that the sphere of dust surrounding the red dwarfs was smaller than many models suggest - within two times the radius of the star itself.
Because grains of dust scatter the light differently depending on the colour of the light that hits them, the team was able to analyse their data for different colours and determine an average grain size: not much more than half a millionth of a metre.
That is far larger than anticipated, and as Mr Norris explained, large enough to solve the mystery of how the dust gets expelled: "The dust grains are like lots of little sails catching the wind, or in this case, starlight."
"The mechanism by which mass is transported away from these stars is one of the biggest louis vuitton necklace questions in stellar astronomy, and underpins our whole understanding of how heavy elements are spread throughout the galaxy. Our study is just one small piece in this puzzle."